Tuesday, 20 September 2011

Empowering Cancer Patients with Better Life-Saving Findings

Cancer Patients with Better Life-Saving Findings

When it comes to collective human communicating, I always emphasize the grandness of "patient-driven medicine." Patient-driven agent is what right combinatory medication is most. It embraces the explanation of par between patient and debase, and apiece treatment syllabus is tailored to the patient's soul needs, desires and pleasure stratum, with a focusing on non-biased and holistic, extensive protocols.

I late presented the force of this approach, along with the latest explore findings in interference, curb and paste of human at the annual Sign Standard Order word this Sep 2011. This truly inspirational circumstance brought life-saving substance to thousands of patients and their families, message myself and opposite examination experts the possibleness to apportion main recommendations and inspirational stories of selection. 

Grandness of Empowerment
My top kudos for militant mansion is position and foremost to create an combinatorial software that emphasizes empowerment of the forbearing. Cancer patients condition to be sceptred so they can use their sickness as an possibility for transformation and change, activity to greater thought for their being and the lives of fill around them. Without sweeping accumulation on the countywide arrange of getable therapeutic and diagnostic options, as wellspring as physiological, psychical, moody. Much a limitation promotes inequality and fearfulness in the mountebank's power and leads many present to underprivileged clinical outcome.

At my holistic integrative clinic, Amitabha Medical Clinic, we make persevering training and empowerment a top precedence. We tender numerous in-depth resources and a thick grasp of holistic hold for our patients to hear as untold as they can near their uncomparable options for achieving best eudaemonia. With substance from our practitioners, patients are the ones who  decide which management protocols are someone for them, based on their uncomparable aliveness circumstances. As an holistic clinic, we supply patients as a intact, in body, brain and feeling, to pay complete agree tight with patients to realise and direct their unequaled upbeat state, and supportive their wellbeing and upbeat goals with tailored strategies, a expert integrative health practician acts an coordinate mate on the route to best upbeat. Having much vehement argue in the assemblage of breeding, plastic patient-driven recommendations and holistic empowerment, allows for some much advantageous clinical outcomes for our patients.

New Evidence Proves Powerfulness of MCP
At the association, I also had the opportunity to utter burning new search on the immune-enhancing and cancer-fighting properties of Altered Citrus Pectin (MCP), as considerably as the portrayal of foamy galectin-3 levels in different diseases. These findings move supercritical, life-saving information to patients hunt safe and impelling raw therapies to intensify their discourse programs.

New grounds shows the formal effects of my most advisable anti-cancer nutrient,  Qualified Citrus Pectin,in block enlarged levels of galectin-3 molecules in the body. Galectin-3 is produced naturally by our bodies, but new investigate proves that elevated levels can point the proximity of serious eudaemonia conditions equal bosom disease, fibrosis and metastatic individual.

Restricted Citrus Pectin is the exclusive unaffected galectin-3 medicine open today. By protection to and obstruction immoderateness galectin-3 molecules, Restricted Citrus Pectin prevents galectin-3 from wreaking havoc throughout our bodies. These new discoveries utilise Qualified Citrus Pectin regularize greater potency in the hindrance and discourse of some capital wellbeing conditions for which there are currently limited or no treatments open. As writer research continues on the personation of galectin-3 in a inaccurate comprise of diseases, the usefulness ofModified Citrus Pectinwill uphold to colour as healed, substance new prospect and empowerment to patients hunting secure and impressive therapies for operational disease and restoring eudaemonia

How the Right Diet and Exercise Books can be Helpful in Losing Weight

How you  Losing Weight.......

Fasting and practise books can be an invaluable puppet for the jillions of individuals who assay to lose coefficient or enter a thriving weight. While effort to the gym, consulting a specialist, or joining one of the hundreds of metric death programs are an option for whatever, these services are overpriced especially if they are requisite for a prolonged stop of case. Diet books and magazines are relatively inexpensive and are impressive for losing metric and maintaining overall health if an being takes the period and labour to rise their advice. Withal, selecting the tract diet and apply books are primary in organisation to be successful and with the thousands of reactionary for you can be an intense extend.
Choosing Serious and Virtual Diet Books
Of the thousands of fasting books and magazines that are in circulation today, more of these allow fad diets or methods of dieting that are extremely restrictive, complicated, or upright unrhetorical puffy. The job with most of these fasting books is not exclusive the fact that numerous of them are windburnt, but the individuals who activity to canvass them gain themselves consistently peckish and craving the foods that bonk been eliminated which typically leads to loser and failure. For these reasons, choosing a fasting accumulation that promotes a firm and much earthy method of losing metric is the capita

When {browsing through the enormous action of fast books there are several measurable factors to countenance for in dictate to prefer one that gift exploit you to be winning with your weight release goals. A poised fast is the most primal compute that should be included in any accumulation promoting coefficient diminution as the earthborn embody requires galore varied vitamins, minerals, and nutrients in condition to enter optimal health. When a special fasting fails to countenance reliable substantive nutrients, the prove may be unfavourable eudaemonia issues and the exit module be only temporary as the diminution of tough tissue causes the body's metabolous grade to decrease resulting in little calories being tempered.
Combining Diet and Exertion Books
Fast lonely is not sufficiency for the figure of individuals to attain their weight deprivation goals and reassert their metric or gross eudaimonia. Utilize is also an crucial businessperson when it comes to losing weight successfully and, therefore, should also be included as construct of any reputable fasting aggregation. Fitting as a fasting should not be colonial or knockout to survey, neither should an recitation package as it may lead in the
proffer a few lyrate and powerful exercises as fine as adjuvant tips to process the train of beneficial touchable reflection through your daily routine. For instance, whatever useful tips would include just walking up the stairs instead of taking the lift, parking encourage departed from the outlet when you are gushing errands, or travel to a nearby quaker or somebody's domiciliate instead of winning the car. There are many fasting and exertion books disposable today that y
aware, impelling, and real methods of losing weight.

Monday, 12 September 2011

Best Benefits of Public Health Education

Benefits of Public Health Education
 Benefits of Public Health Education


Unrestricted health upbringing can be thoughtful an oracular point. It teaches the proper way to change one's eudaimonia, and can necessitate only one or two grouping, or the collection of several countries. Anything that can earnestly threaten the corporeal, feature, or unworldly eudaimonia of a stretching array of grouping, notably due to their interactions with one another, can be sensitive as a danger to the group's overt wellbeing. This is why world wellbeing instruction becomes a needed slave to aid grouping against the open of potentiality diseases and illnesses. Quintet of the most grave reasons of how open wellbeing training can essay beneficial are as follows:
1. People are healthy to learn how to keep the circulate of contagious diseases through the breeding and methods beingness taught in teaching. People are able to hump ameliorate right to info regarding pervasive interference of diseases, including the knowledge of what to do and how to act during epidemics in their area. Reliable diseases human their own mortal bar methods that people should be fortunate alive of, and employing these techniques lessens the seek of existence pussy by researchable diseases. Through overt eudaimonia training, equal buy vaccines for a part malady that is obvious at that example of the assemblage, always proves very trenchant in limiting the find of people constrained annually.
2. Author people are healthy to gain clannish and semipublic medical institutions to foreclose diseases or scrutiny conditions, or to better provide them. Without the benefits of a open welfare education, most people may experience flushed enough and not grow the demand to go for a unspecialized check-up. Existence sensitive that it is required to see your mountebank regularly is one of the eventful things scholarly in a healthy public welfare instruction. Most medical eudaimonia breeding ensures that many people experience to go to these facilities and exploit of the handling, thereby lessening the amount of ill grouping.
3. People are healthy to borrow a healthier action to alter the peril of diseases being undo among themselves. Obligation things laborer around the business, opting to lessen or leave respiration nudity, or sweat solon are fair a few of the numerous assorted slipway taught in overt health teaching to struggle symptom and turn one's style.
4. Group get more sensible of substance relating to the disease, kinda than believing in retributive open7 representation. Public health breeding not exclusive deals with how to foreclose illnesses, it also provides details of how a disease complex, which may displace some myths and fallacies active it in association. The HIV virus for admonition, can be distribution finished unshielded sexed relation, but not finished activities specified as kissing or exploit. This also helps happening a soul's views towards someone purulent, promoting solon empathy kinda than discrimination.
5. Group are competent to work and lead to disease bar by supporting or volunteering at welfare attention facilities. Public welfare upbringing is writer than rightful wide aggregation; it also calls group to actively act in aiding others. To be competent to protect one's health, it is also required to protect the health of opposite grouping around you, and helps adoptive a many close-knit agreement and a healthier discernment of comradery.

Monday, 22 August 2011

When Cancer Takes Over Life


When Cancer Takes Over life
Cancer is an illness that all of us hope we don't succumb too. Every educated person knows that there are several causes for cancer and most of them lie within the lifestyles that we have. One of the main causes of cancer lies in the kind of foods we eat. Cancer causing foods are plenty. You need to know about them in order to steer clear.

Food that has been charred, for example a barbecue, creates what are known as heterocyclic aromatic amines that are carcinogenic or cancer inducing. Burnt toast is also included. If you must indulge in red meat, having it medium or rare is a better option than having it well done. Or better yet, just steer clear of red meat.
Stomach cancer is known to be higher in folks who loved pickled, salted or smoked foods. Aerated or artificially sweetened drinks contain sugars and additives that can turn carcinogenic. Foods fried in excessive oil have trans fatty acids that in the long run can cause cancer. These are just some of the foods to look out for.

If you have already developed cancer, the prognosis will tell you which stage you are in. Cancer staging simply is the extent of the illness and is generally categorized in stages of 4. If you are in Stage 4 of cancer, your doctor will be able to tell you how far it has moved in your case. You have to understand that each form of cancer has a different meaning to stage 4 and only your doctor will be able to explain to you clearly about it. It will also help him make an informed decision on the course of treatment for you to follow. Though it may sound terrifying, knowing the stage you are in gives you a clearly idea of what to expect.

As with any other illness, a lack of awareness always surrounds cancer. When it comes breast cancer, awareness bracelets were introduced in 2004. With time, these bracelets are being made by a number of organizations and foundations all aimed at spreading knowledge as well as collecting funds for research or medical care of those who cannot afford it. Many still do not know that men too can have breast cancer and that is just one of the messages that this little beauties set out to tell.

Cancer is an illness that we all have to work hard to keep at bay. But if any one of use does contract it, you should know that being surrounded by friends and family is what is most important.

By: Walt yoast

Friday, 19 August 2011

How to Get Over Your Fear of the Dentist


 How to Get Over Your Fear of the Dentist

Find a friendly dentist - they do exist!
How to Get Over Your Fear of the Dentist
Like every profession, different dentists have different personalities. 
Spend a bit of time selecting the one that you are most likely to get on with.
Don't settle for just meeting the receptionist or taking their word for the friendliness of their boss. Actually arrange a short chat session with the person who'll be glaring into your mouth and poking around in it.
Check how your dentist deals with nervous patients
You're by no means alone in your fear of dentists. When I quizzed my own dental practitioner on the subject a few years back, she admitted that she never looked forward to a visit to her dentist.
As with friendliness, some dentists will be more likely to put their patients at ease than others.
If their first reaction is that no-one is ever afraid of them, maybe they haven't thought about the subject or how best to deal with it. Or maybe their patients are all so big they would scare the dentist rather than the other way round.
Either way, you'll know from the reaction you get whether it's an issue they are happy to deal with or whether you should go to the next person on your checklist.
Drag a friend along with you
Sometimes all we need to quell our fear of dentists is the presence of someone we know and trust.
OK, your friend almost certainly won't stop the dentist from prodding around your teeth with what look like torture instruments. But the mere fact of them being with you, maybe holding your hand if they can prize it from its grip of the dentist's chair, is often a great help.


Learn to relax
Most people turn stiff as a rod as soon as they lie down on the dentist's chair. Myself included. It's the fear response kicking in.
But learning to relax is a way to get around this response or at least lessen the worry when you do encounter that grinning professional in the white coat.
Quieten those nagging voices
You know, the voices in your head that run through all the possible scenarios even though you're only going for a five-minute checkup.
Again, relaxation techniques can help you to turn down the volume control in your mind and send those awkward and worrying voices packing, helping to reduce your fear of the dentist.
Maybe give yourself the fun feeling of washing them down the receptacle with the pink running water that always seems to be next to a dentist's chair!
By: Trevor Johnson






Thursday, 11 August 2011

The Macrophages

The Macrophages

macrophages
The macrophages
Resident tissue macrophages, e.g. Kupffer cells in the liver, alveolar macrophages in the lung, mesangial cells in the kidney, microglial cells in the brain and resident macrophages in the peritoneum and lymph nodes, derive from circulating monocytes which originate in the bone marrow. Tissue macrophages have a number of important functions (see the information box)
and via a range of surface receptors are able to respond in different ways to a wide range of external stimuli. Like neutrophils, resident macrophages can ingest and kill bacteria, but perhaps their major role in acute inflammation is to initiate and orchestrate the inflammatory response by the secretion of important cytokines (see table 1.4) and chemokines. For example, they can secrete large quantities of the neutrophils chemokine IL-8 and other chemokines that specifically attract monocytes to the inflamed site. These monocytes rapidly mature into inflammatory macrophages, which have huge phagocytic and bacterial killing capacity and which also have important scavenging function for damaged microorganisms and proteins and for aged and damaged host cells in the ‘clearing up’ processes during the resolution of the inflammatory response. Finally, resident and inflammatory macrophages can secrete a range of cytokines that are responsible for tissue repair processes, but clearly in effective control of these processes may underlie the excessive fibroproliferative response that characterizes chronic inflammatory diseases such as pyelonephritis and fibrosing alveolitis (see the information box). The Macrophages

 

Thursday, 4 August 2011

MORE COMPLEX INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES

MORE COMPLEX INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES

MORE COMPLEX INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES
 INFLAMMATORY
While (Pneumonia) streptococcal pneumonia exemplifies and acute inflammatory response in which the recruited cells are virtually restricted to neutrophil granulocytes and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, in other situation, e.g. some viral infections, large numbers of lymphocytes are recruited. This more persistent tissue picture results from a combination of the inflammatory and classical immune responses. The further recruitment of eosinophils in a chronic inflammatory response is a feature of allergic inflammation, e.g. in filariasis and schistosomiasis.
However, these patterns of cellular responses can also be ‘turned against us’ in various diseases if they occur inappropriately or in a uncontrolled fashion. For example, an excessive or inappropriate acute inflammatory response is responsible for many acute tissue injury syndromes, acute goat and acute glomerulonephritis. A chronic inflammatory response and chronic tissue destruction or an excessive fibrogenic response are key features of reheumatoid arthritis, chronic pyelonephritis, fibrosing alveolitis and chronic bronchitis and emphysema. An allergic inflammatory response characterizes asthma and eczema. The vast redundancy of mechanisms displayed in various aspects of the inflammatory response may be advantageous in antibacterial host defense but it poses problems for the development of specific therapy in inflammatory diseases.

Wednesday, 27 July 2011

Qualitative Dietary Deficiency

Qualitative Dietary Deficiency

Energy-yielding Nutrients
Deficiency
Carbohydrates. These usually provide the greater part of the calories in a normal diet but no individual carbohydrate is an absolute dietary necessity in the sense that the body needs it but cannot make it for itself from other nutrients. If the carbohydrate intake is less than 100 g per day ketosis is likely to occur.
Fats. With their high caloric value, fats are useful to people with large energy expenditure; moreover they are helpful in cooking and making food appetizing. Though rats need linoleic or arachidonic acids in their diet deficiency
of these essential fatty acids is rare in man. It has been demonstrated in patients who have been fed intravenously for long periods without fat emulsions.
The possible role of cholesterol, fats and different fatty acids in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary thrombosis will be discussed later. (Dietary Deficiency)
Proteins. Proteins provide amino acids, of which eight are essential for normal protein synthesis and for maintaining nitrogen balance in adults. These are termed essential amino acids because the body cannot make them for Itself and so must obtain them from the diet. They are methionine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, and valine. There is evidence that histidine and perhaps arginine are needed for growth in infants.
The ‘biological value’ of different proteins depends on the relative proportions of essential amino acids they contain. Proteins of animal origin, particularly from milk, eggs, meat and fish, are generally of higher biological value than the proteins of vegetable origin. Most vegetable proteins are deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids; but it is possible to have a diet of mixed vegetable proteins with high biological value if the principle of supplementation is used. For example cereals, e.g. wheat, contain about 10 per cent protein and are relatively deficient in lysine. Legumes contain around 20 per cent of protein which is relatively deficient in methionine. If two parts of wheat are mixed (or eaten) with one part of legume, a food results which contains 13 per cent of a protein of high biological value. This happens because cereals contain enough methionine and legumes enough lysine to supplement the other component of the mixture.
A deficient intake of protein leads to (a) negative nitrogen balance; (b) wasting of tissues; and (c) fall in plasma albumin. The usual recommended allowance for an adequate protein intake is 10 per cent of the total calories. The minimum requirement is less, around 40 g per day of good biological value protein for an adult.

PROTEIN-CALORIE MALNUTRITION (Dietary Deficiency)

(PROTEIN-E ERGY MALNUTRITION) (Dietary Deficiency)

Aetiology and Classification. Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) in early childhood is now regarded as a spectrum of disease. At one end there is kwashiorkor in which the essential feature is deficiency of protein with relatively adequate calorie intake. At the other end is nutritional marasmus which is total inanition of the infant, usually under 1 year of age, and is due to a severe and prolonged restriction of calories and protein as well as other nutrients. In the middle of the spectrum is marasmic kwashiorkor in which children have some clinical features of both disorders.
Table 1
Classification of PCM

Body weight as percentage of international standard for age
Oedema
Deficit in weight for height
KwashiorkorMarasmic KwashiorkorMarasmusNutritional dwarfing Underweight Child
80-60
<60
<60
<60
80-60
+
+
0
0
0
+
++
++
Minimal
+
Based on Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Nutrition. 8th Report, 1971 (with modifications in weight/height column).

Some children adapt to prolonged calorie and/or protein shortage by nutritional dwarfism. The most prevalent of all the varieties of PCM is mild to moderate PCM or the Underweight Child (see Table 1).
Children with one form of PCM often shift to another form. Thus a child with mild to moderate PCM may develop kwashiorkor after an infection. When such a child is treated and loses oedema he may look marasmic.
The incidence of PCM in its various forms is high in India and South-east Asia, in most parts of Africa and the Middle East, in the Caribbean islands and in South and Central America. PCM is the most important dietary deficiency disease in the world, affecting tens of millions of children; hence it will be described in considerable detail. (Dietary Deficiency)

Monday, 25 July 2011

Bacterial food Poisoning

Bacterial food Poisoning



Bacterial food Poisoning
Food poisoning includes a number of disorders presenting with diarrhea and vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis developing up to 48 hours after the consumption of food or drink. It is customary not to include under this term the enteric fevers, dysenteries and cholera which are also spread by infected food and drink. In contrast to enteric fever which is relatively uncommon and cholera which has been almost unknown in Britain for the last 100 years, there is an increase in the reported incidence of food poisoning, of which that of bacterial origin is by far the most common type.
Food poisoning may also be due to intestinal allergy, e.g. to shellish, or to children eating unripe fruit or other unsuitable foods. Rarely a poisonous substance may be eaten, e.g. Amanita phalloides, in mistake for a mushroom or a chemical poison in food may be unwittingly consumed. Examples of the latter range from barium carbonate used in baking in mistake for flour, to arsenic or powdered glass administered murderously in the tradition of the Borgias.
Food which has been placed in a container previously used for holding a chemical poison may be contaminated. Placing acid fruit juices in cheap enamel or zinc vessels may result in the liberation of antimony or zinc. Home-made wine kept in glazed earthenware containers may be the source of chronic lead poisoning.
Aetiology. Bacterial food poisoning is usually divided into the infection and toxin types.
INFECTION TYPE. The organisms mainly responsible belong to the Salmonella group whose source is certain birds, cattle and reptiles, such as pet tortoises. The domestic fowl is one of the commonset sources of salmonellae and modern methods of poultry husbandry involving battery-rearing and deep-freezing of carcasses encourage the spread and transmission of infection, the organisms surviving in the frozen birds. Salmonella typhimurium causes at least three-quarters of the cases of food poisoning of the ‘infection’ type in Britain. Food may be contaminated with infected excreta of mice ot rats, or infection may be transferred by flies or by human carriers employed in the handling of food. The size of the infecting dose of bacteria bears a close relationship to the speed of onset of symptoms and to the severity of the illness. This indicates the dangers of bacterial multiplication which may take place when food is contaminated and thereafter remains warm for many hours or days. The types of food which are particularly likely to be affected are twice-cooked meat dishes, stews, gravies, soups, custards, milk and synthetic cream. The danger of food poisoning is greatly reduced if such foods are kept in a refrigerator. Ducks tend to be carriers of salmonella organisms in the oviduct and alimentary tract, and duck’s eggs are not suitable for the preparation of lightly cooked foods. Hen’s eggs are rarely affected.
TOXIN TYPE. Such poisoning is most commonly caused by the enterotoxin produced by Staph. aureus. This frequently originates from a food handler who may be a carrier or suffering from a septic lesion and so contaminates food. Incubation under suitable conditions of temperature leads to growth of the organism and production of toxin which is relatively heat resistant and may not be destroyed by cooking. Strains of clostridium welchii, many of them relatively resistant to heat, may contaminate certain foods, particularly meat. Pre-cooking of stews and pies may not destroy all the spores and the keeping of such food, even when followed by heating before consumption, will lead to the formation of toxins which can give rise to gastroenteritis, sometimes severe. Other bacteria (e.g. Streptococcus and Bacillus) may contaminate food without obvious spoilage and may also cause mild gastroenteritis.
Outbreaks of food poisoning affecting large numbers of persons occur in canteens, restaurants, hospitals and other institutions.

Clinical Features.(Bacterial food Poisoning)

The simultaneous occurance of symptoms in more than one member of a household or institution often simplifies diagnosis. The incubation period is a useful pointer to the aetiology. If vomiting starts within 30 minutes of the ingestion of suspected food, it is likely to be due to a chemical poison; if it arises 12 to 48 hours later, it is probably due to a Salmonella infection. The incubation periods of staphylococcal and clostridial food poisoning are usually intermediate between these extremes being from one to 12 hours.
The symptoms in any single outbreak vary in severity depending on the type and amount of the poisonous substance ingested. The principal symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and central abdominal colic. Staphylococcal food poisoning may be associated only with vomiting while diarrhea and abdominal pain are more prominent with Cl. Welchii toxins. In severe cases there may be prostration, collapse and signs of dehyderation. In the chemical and toxin types of food poisoning the onset tends to be sudden and severe and the patient may rapidly become shocked. Recovery however usually occurs within 24 hours. In the infection type, symptoms develop more slowly and there is usually pyrexia and toxicity. The patient may be ill for several days. The stools are watery and offensive, and may contain blood and some mucus, in contrast to bacillary dysentery where there is also pus.
A rare cause of bacterial food poisoning is the ingestion of one of the most potent poisons known to man, namely the toxin produced by Cl. botulinum. Imperfectly treated tinned food or preserved fish may be contaminated with the organism and be the source of the toxin. The clinical features differ from all other types of bacterial food poisoning and consist chiefly of vomiting, constipation, thirst and the secretion of viscid saliva and of ocular and pharyngeal pareses and aphonia.

Diagnosis. (Bacterial food Poisoning)

A specimen of the patient’s stool or vomit together with the suspected food, if available, should be sent for culture. Organisms of the Salmonella group can usually be readily isolated. In more severe cases blood should be sent for culture. Notification of Salmonella infection and other types of food poisoning is compulsory in Britain.
Food poisoning must be differentiated from acute surgical abdominal emergencies especially in children.
Treatment. Most cases are miled and can be treated at home. Solid food should be withheld and the patient instructed to take fluids only. A quarter teaspoonful of table salt added to one pint of water flavoured with a small quantity of fruit juice provides a satisfactory oral replacement solution. Patients who are severely ill, collapsed or dehydrated require intravenous fluid therapy.
Symptoms normally pass off spontaneously in a day or two. When acute symptoms cease, semi-fluid low-roughage diet may be taken containing bread, butter, eggs, fish, softpuddings and jellies. To control diarrhea, kaolin mixture may be given in 10 ml doses every two to four hours. Codeine phosphate 30 mg six-hourly is also useful.
Antibiotics should not be given for acute diarrhea and vomiting as they are ineffective and frequently exacerbate symptoms. If salmonella bacteraemia is suspected or confirmed, ampicillin, 1 g every six hours should be given by intramuscular injection.
If the poisoning is thought to be due to a chemical or a poisonous food, the patient’s stomach should be washed out with tepid water, using the technique described onward.
Prevention. In salmonella food poisoning the carrier state persists on the average for about 14 days after infection but may be much longer, and the patient must not be allowed to handle food until he has stopped excreting the organism. A reduction in the high incidence of food poisoning can best be achieved by improving the standards of personal hygiene, especially in those handling food, and by stressing the importance of hand-washing after using the lavatory. Increasing facilities for low temperature storage of food which has to be kept for some hours or days before being consumed is of the greatest importance. It is essential to keep frozen poultry at room temperature for at least eight hours before cooking or pathogens at the centre may survive unharmed. (Bacterial food Poisoning)

Friday, 22 July 2011

Healthy Heart, Cholesterol Lowering Food for Disease free Life

Healthy Heart, Cholesterol Lowering Food for Disease free Life


A healthy heart leads to a healthy life free of disease. This article has covered a list of foods that are very helpful in reducing cholesterol level. Taking proper care of your health is above all that you do in your daily schedule so try to follow them - for you and your family happy.

High blood cholesterol problem may result in complications such as heart problems critics. You can have high blood cholesterol due to several reasons. You can control some of these factors, but some of them can? It is controlled. The life is one of the most important factors leading to high blood cholesterol. But sometimes it is seen that the people going through a perfectly healthy lifestyle may suffer from high blood cholesterol. This may be a hereditary factor that is one of the major factors influencing cholesterol in our blood.

Normally, our body produces a certain amount of cholesterol. Individuals, who are predisposed to high risk blood cholesterol problem, can only depend on medications prescribed by an expert in health www.ayurvedicherbalcure.com/Herbs/arjuna.html . They need to maintain a healthy lifestyle and have a balanced diet, including plenty of healthy foods that reduce cholesterol. They need to work on some important factors such as weight management and diet.
You should choose food that helps. Do not take food that contains saturated fat, Trans fat and cholesterol. You can completely eliminate these elements from your diet, or can at least minimize the consumption of it.

Avoid sitting in front of the computer for a long period of time. If your daily routine lacks physical activities, you're running a great risk for various complications, such as high cholesterol. Even doing some simple exercises, like walking for an hour daily can help you manage your cholesterol level. If you can include in your daily exercise, you're on the way to manage blood pressure and triglyceride level.

If you have high blood cholesterol, you need to regularly check your body weight. If you are overweight, you should immediately take appropriate measures to lose weight.

If you are having you should increase your intake of foods high in soluble fiber. Soluble fiber helps to manage high cholesterol by absorbing it and then extracting the body through the digestive system. Foods that are good source of soluble fiber are apples, blackberries, oranges, apricots, peas, beans, broccoli, grapefruit, and sweet potatoes.

The Omega 3 fatty acids are to a significant level. You should take mackerel, salmon, sardines, and many others in your daily diet to meet the demand for omega 3 fatty acids in your system. Omega 3 fatty acids help in minimizing cardiovascular problems. If you do not want to have as much fatty fish, you can replace the foods that rely on lower cholesterol, such as walnuts, soybeans, and ground flax.

Apart from these, you can also add sterols in your diet. Sterols are nutritional substances found in plant cell membranes. Pistachio nuts, sunflower seeds, wheat germ and contain high amounts of sterols. Sterols actually resemble the chemical structure almost identical to cholesterol. If you take sterol in your diet, cholesterol claims for access to receptors located in the small intestine. Thus, it minimizes the production of cholesterol by effectively blocking their access to the small intestine. Hence, results in decreased cholesterol level in the body.

I have mentioned a good list of foods in this article that may help to lower high blood cholesterol level. So, take care of your diet and live a healthy life.

Important Notice: We are not intended to provide health advice in this article and are for general information. Always seek the insights of a qualified health professional before embarking on any health program.
 ------------------------
By:- Adrianna smith

Thursday, 21 July 2011

Early Signs of Pregnancy

Early Signs of Pregnancy 

A lot of couples who are hoping to have a baby will likely react to the very slightest discomfort that they hope might signal that the woman is finally pregnant. Of course, pinpointing pregnancy so early on is typically not easy, as some of the discomfort that the lady feels may be credited to something other than pregnancy.
A lot of couples who are hopeful to have a baby will likely react to the very slightest discomfort that they hope might signal that the woman is finally pregnant. Of course, pinpointing pregnancy so early on is typically difficult, as some of the discomfort that the lady feels may be attributed to something other than pregnancy. The following symptoms may be present but they may not necessarily be caused by a pregnancy:
1. Tiredness or fatigue – Extreme tiredness can happen as early as a week following conception. But this is more difficult to use as a gauge because fatigue can be caused by many other things, such as lack of sleep or a general physical exhaustion from a busy week or weeks.
2. Breast tenderness – You may notice your breast starting to feel tender, swollen, or simply more sensitive than usual. Although this also happens just before you get your period, as a sign of pregnancy, it can happen about one to two weeks following conception.
3. Irritability or moodiness – Hormonal changes can cause mood swings that are more pronounced than usual. Of course, you need to remember that you may also feel moody when your period is approaching. As such if this is a symptom of pregnancy it is usually disregarded in the absence of the other symptoms.
4. Headaches – Raised levels of hormones may cause headaches; as such, some women experience headaches early on in a pregnancy. But this symptom is a little too common to attribute directly to a pregnancy, as it can be caused by any myriad of factors.
5. Food cravings – Although cravings are generally joked about around someone who is pregnant, it may not be an accurate gauge of pregnancy minus other confirmation. After all, a woman may just happen to have a mood-directed choice of food, such as yearning for comfort food like ice cream during a particularly depressed moment. Women happen to be among the most emotionally-driven eaters, so this may not be too accurate.
6. Frequent urination – Some women experience a need to empty their bladders more frequently than usual. However, this is usually not noticed as a sign as many women feel it to be too normal a change.
However, there are also early signs that are more definite in telling you that you are indeed pregnant. Among these are:
1. Missing a period – This is typically the main sign that women take before they buy a pregnancy test. Of course, an important thing to remember is that you may also miss your period, if you have it regularly, due to hormonal changes in rare cases, such as if you suddenly lost a lot of weight. It may also happen when you are taking anti-pregnancy pills, as some of them curb the production of egg cells, which eventually result in amenorrhea.
2. Morning sickness or nausea any time of the day – This is the most commonly portrayed symptom for pregnancy in movies and books. This is because you don’t normally undergo this when you are about to have your phase except for severe cases of dysmenorrhea. This can happen at about two to eight weeks following conception as your hormone levels reach top levels than usual.
3. Implantation bleeding – When the fertilized egg cell is implanted onto the uterus, some women knowledge implantation bleeding. This typically happens between six to twelve days following conception, and the bleeding is not as pronounced as a period. It is aptly described as spotting.
Although these are typical early signs of pregnancy, with the immunity of a missed period, not all women experience them, as every pregnancy is exclusive So if you find yourself experiencing most, if not all, of these symptoms, it might be the best time to buy yourself a pregnancy testing kit. If you don’t and yet confirm yourself to be pregnant, do not be anxious, as these signs are in no tactic an sign of a healthy pregnancy. In any case, just celebrate the new life rising within you and enjoy each step of the journey as you welcome a new member into your family.

Wednesday, 20 July 2011


Leptospirosis

 


Leptospirosis
(Leptospirosis) Weil’s disease, an infection associated with jaundice and caused by invasion with Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, was the first leptospiral infection to be recognized in man. It was not long before it was discovered that the rat is the natural host and that the mode of spread is by contact with rat’s urine containing the organism, which can penetrate the skin or mucosae.
(Leptospirosis) Subsequently over 100 serotypes of leptospires have been identified, many of which have been shown to cause disease in man. The natural hosts of most of these types are small wild rodents, but some may also occur in animals such as dogs and pigs. In Britain only two serotypes, namely L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. canicola, have been shown to cause human disease, but other serotypes have been isolated from wild rodents. The spread of these infections is usually by contamination with infected animal urine, and fish cleaners, farm-workers, veterinarians and vagrants are those most at risk; immersion in canals or stagnant water may also result in sporadic infection and in such instances the disease may present as lymphocytic meningitis due, probably, to the entrance of the leptospires through the conjunctivae. (Leptospirosis) Infections due to leptospires other than L. icterohaemorrhagiae are not often associated with jaundice and diagnosis frequently involves differentiation from other causes of pyrexia of unknown origin. The first step is to establish whether or not antibody to leptospiral antigen is present and this may be rapidly carried out in most laboratories. The isolation and identification of the causative organism from body fluids such as blood or urine is more difficult and time consuming.
Pathology. In patients dying from laptospirosis, there has usually been a combination of hepatic, renal and cardiac failure. The changes in the liver are non-specific; in severe cases, there may be centrilobular and even massive necrosis. Oedema and inflammatory exudate lead to intralobular biliary stasis. In the kidneys, the glomeruli are usually spared, but the tubules are affected and contain haemoglobin and myoglobin casts. The main findings in the myocardium are focal haemorrhages, interstitial oedema and cellular infiltration. A similar picture is seen in skeletal muscle. If meningitis is present, there is thickening of the meninges due to inflammatory exudate.

Clinical Features.(Leptospirosis)

(Leptospirosis) The average incubation period is 10 days, the range being 4 to 21 days. An unknown, but significantly high proportion of infections are subclinical or may cause a mild undiagnosed fever. In the more severe infections the first or septicaemic phase lasts about a week. Usually the clinical illness begins abruptly with headache, severe myalgia, pyrexia, conjunctival suffusion, anorexia and vomiting. Infrequently, there are skin rashes or petechiae and enlargement of the liver and spleen.
In the second phase, sometimes termed the toxic or immune phase, leptospiral antibodies appear in the blood. The temperature falls by lysis and is usually normal for two or three days. In the majority of patients, there is further pyrexia for a few days and transient meningism followed by prompt recovery. In other cases, during this phase, hepatitis, tubular necrosis, myocarditis and meningitis may occur. The cause of these serious complications is uncertain but cell damage from immune complexes is a possible explanation.
Hepatitis is indicated by epigastric pain and tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and the appearance of jaundice, usually accompanied by dark urine. There may or may not be pallor of the stools. In severe cases, jaundice deepens, there is marked anorexia and vomiting and there is a haemorrhagic tendency. The patient may worsen and show all the features of acute massive liver necrosis. Renal tubular necrosis may lead to acute renal failure. Myocarditis is suggested by tachycardia, fall in blood pressure and cardiac enlargement. The development of profound hypotension, arrhythmias and cardiac failure are ominous signs. Meningitis causes severe headache, neck stiffness and a positive Kernig’s sign. Haemorrhagic pneumonia and iritis are infrequent complications.
By the third and fourth week of the illness, the majority of patients enter the third or convalescent phase. The average case has a post-infective debility which gradually improves. When there has been serious involvement of the liver, kidneys and heart, mortality is in the region of 15% to 20%. Those who recover, do so completely. There is gradual clearing of jaundice, the urine output improves with regression of uraemia, the blood pressure rises, the heart returns to normal size and any signs of cardiac failure disappear. During the third phase, the case untreated with penicillin may show a temporary return of muscle pain with pyrexia (secondary fever). The reason for this is not known.
(Leptospirosis) Laboratory Data. Most patients with leptospirosis show a polymorphonuclear leucocytosis. When there is liver involvement, the liver function tests indicate a mild hepatocellular jaundice with and intrahepatic obstructive element; bilirubin and urobilinogen are present in the urine. In patients with renal failure the urine contains protein, red blood cells and cellular and granular casts; in severe cases the rise in blood urea is progressive. In myocarditis there is electrocardiographic evidence of conduction disturbances and arrhythmias. Meningitis is characterized by an increase of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid with little or no rise in protein; xanthochromia may be observed in the jaundiced patient. Apart from the few patients developing severe haemorrhagic pneumonia, scattered opacities’ probably due to haemorrhage are seen on radiography of the chest in 10 to 20% of cases.
The diagnosis is made by culturing the organism from the blood in the first week or from the urine in the second and third weeks. Alternatively, blood or urine specimens may be inoculated into a guinea-pig. From the second week onwards, specific leptospiral antibodies in rising titre may be demonstrated in the blood. The serum antibody titres may not however reach diagnostic levels in those cases treated promptly.

Treatment. (Leptospirosis)

Leptospirosis are sensitive to penicillin in vitro. Penicillin is effective therapy in man provided it is given early enough and in adequate doses; it shortens the average illness, reduces the incidence of severe complications and abolishes secondary fever. Doubts about the usefulness of penicillin in the past arose because treatment was being initiated too late in the infection. Benzylpenicillin must be given as early as possible in the leptospiaemic phase in a dose of 300 mg six-hourly for seven days and thereafter twice daily for a further seven days. In 80 to 90% of patients receiving penicillin, there is an aggravation of symptoms and a brisk rise of temperature four to six hours after the first injection and lasting for about 18 hours. This is sufficiently consistent to give valuable indirect evidence of the correct diagnosis. Appropriate fluid replacement, parenterally if necessary, is important during the period of acute illness. In severely affected patients supportive treatment for acute massive liver necrosis, acute renal failure, arrhythmias and cardiac failure may be required. (Leptospirosis)

Tuesday, 19 July 2011

Mumps

Mumps

Mumps is caused by a virus which spreads by droplet infection and affects
mumps
mumps
mainly children of school age and young adults. The infectivity rate is not high and there is serological evidence that 30-40% of infections are clinically inapparent. Most cases occur in the spring. The incubation period is about 18 days. A quarantine period is not necessary: contacts should be watched for the first sign of disease from the 12th to the 28thday after exposure.

Clinical Features.(Mumps)

Malaise, fever and some pain near the angle of the jaw is soon followed by tender swelling alone is often the first feature. The submandibular salivary glands may also be involved. The swollen glands subside in a few days, and may be succeeded by swelling of a previously unaffected gland. Orchitis occurs in about one in four males who develop mumps after puberty; it is usually on one side only, but if it is bilateral, sterility may be a sequel. Obscure abdominal pain may be due to pancreatitis or oƶphoritis. Acute lymphocytic meningitis is another mode of presentation. Encephalomyelitis is rare. If such conditions are due to mumps, they are accompanied by a lymphocytosis. It is also of great diagnostic value in such obscure cases to know that mumps is epidemic in the district at the time.

Diagnosis.(Mumps)

Most cases of mumps can be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. But the diagnosis can be confirmed in doubtful cases by the demonstration of specific antibodies, or the virus may be cultured from the saliva, or from the cerebrospinal fluid in meningitis. Suppurative parotitis is distinguished by the circumstances of onset in an old, frail, ill, febrile or dehydrated patient in whom oral hygiene is poor, and confirmed by obtaining pus from the parotid duct. Calculous obstruction of the parotid duct is rare; it is relatively common in the submandibular duct where the stone can often be felt. Sarcoidosis may cause enlargement of the parotid glands and is usually painless and accompanied by other signs especially uveitis.
Treatment. Oral hygiene is important when the mouth is very dry due to lack of saliva. Difficulty in opening the mouth may necessitate feeding through a straw. Apart from the relief of symptoms as they appear, no other treatment is necessary. Orchitis can be relieved by the administration of prednisolone for a few days without apparent danger of dissemination of infection. Cases of mumps should be isolated until the gland last affected has subsided.

Monday, 18 July 2011

Healthy Body Tips

Ten Tips Help You Maintain A Healthy Body

1. Obviously, a better you on the external starts with a better you from the indoor. Good choices in food are serious. Try to stay away from foods, sauces, dressings, etc. that are high in saturated fat, high calories, empty calories, sugar or any derivative, fried, etc. High fiber foods, fruits, vegetables, water, poultry, fish, lean meats. Eating red meat isn't a sin, just eat it in moderation.
2. Drink as much water as you can, as this is a natural diuretic and flushes the body of toxins and keeps the plumbing working great. If you absolutely hate the taste (yes some think that water has taste) of water, then mix with a flavored low calorie powder mix up
3. Vitamins; once a day, every day. Vitamin E has been known to help ease hot flashes in menopausal women. Vitamin E, however is also a blood thinner so double make sure with your doctor first, especially if you are on Coumadin or Plavix. Overdosing on Vitamin E is also not good, so watch your dosage.
4. The Marlboro man doesn't really love you. Please if nothing else, quit smoking or do not start. Smoking chokes off the arteries and veins in your body thereby stopping the flow of oxygen and blood to your legs. Smoking leads to many types of cancer; breast, pancreatic, lung, etc. Not to mention other types of vascular diseases.

5. Exercise a day keeps your body in good shape. No substance how you do it, just do it. Walk before work or after work, walk in the park with the dog. Play outer with your kids. Exercise doesn't have to be grueling, boring or a chore. Play catch with the kids. Garden, run the vacuum. Pilates, Yoga, dancing are all great ways to get exercise.
6. Easier said than done, keeping stress out of your life is pivotal. Stress causes ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, etc. Try to find one thing to laugh about during the day. Reach out to friends for a rapid phone call. Smell flowers. Take a girl's day/night and go to the spa for a mini-massage or manicure/pedicure. Check out the newest chick flick or joke movie playing. Relax in a nice bubble bath or read a book. Even better, you could go to a comedy club. Billy Connolly is on tour at the moment.
7. Much more is known these days about skin cancer and sun stroke and the use of SPF products. While the sun provides us with vital Vitamin D, it also creates free radicals in our body, causing skin cancer or melanoma. It also makes the skin wrinkle. Make sure you apply UV protective products frequently throughout the day if you are sun worshiping, swimming, exercising or just about anything outside


8. Show me your pearly whites! As significant as it is to eat healthy and exercise, maintaining our mouth is also vital. First of all, who wants to look at anyone with all sorts of gunk peeking out from between their teeth or with missing teeth? Dental appointments, at least every six months but definitely once a year, should be as mandatory as your cup of morning coffee.
9. Say ?ah? please. A yearly visit to your physician or gynecologist for a physical and general work-up is critical in keeping healthy. Woman, starting at age 20, should have yearly Pap tests to screen for cancers and STDs (sexually transmitted diseases). Of course, person examination of the total body is a good indicator of healthiness.
10. No glove, no love. Any age, any sex, anytime, anywhere. Once a woman becomes sexually active whether in a monogamous relationship or the riskier many partner sex, condoms are strongly confident. Condoms are a huge way to keep pregnancy and STDs at a secure distance. There are lots of different types of condoms available to outfit anyone's taste and there is no excuse in the world for not using them, if you are married to your partner.

Staphylococcal Infections (pneumonia)

Staphylococcal Infections (pneumonia)

Staphylococcal Infections
Staphylococcal Infections
pneumonia
pneumonia
Staph. pyogenes (coagulase-positive staphylococcus – syn. Staph. aureus) is responsible for a wide variety of suppurative conditions such as infected lacerations, styes, boils, carbuncles, abscesses, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, necrotizing enterocolitis and bacteraemia with pyaemic abscesses. Infection is derived from human or sometimes animal sources and the organisms can be grown from the nasopharynx and skin of up to 30% of healthy persons. The staphylococcus is readily spread from these sites and from clothing to contaminate the dust in which it survives in the dry state for weeks or months.

(pneumonia)

(pneumonia) In hospital this organism is an important cause of wound infection, pneumonia and neonatal sepsis. Under suitable conditions it multiplies freely in food and milk and so is an important cause of food poisoning. However many infections, particularly boils, carbuncles and abscesses, are due to autogenous infection.
Strains of Staph. pyogenes resistant to antibiotics have increased in number since these drugs were introduced. Such strains are more commonly acquired in hospital and may give rise to small epidemics of infection. Elsewhere the majority of strains are sensitive to antistaphylococcal antibiotics although the production of penicillinase by many precludes treatment with benzylpenicillin. Necrotising enterocolitis is usually the result of the unrestricted growth of drug-resistant staphylococci in the gut following the suppression of other organisms by chemotherapy. The diarrhea, dehyderation and peripheral circulatory failure may be so severe as to resemble cholera.

(pneumonia) Boils

are satisfactory treated with an occlusive dressing or the local application of antiseptic agents. When the severity of the disease warrants antibiotic therapy, the choice depends on whether the infection has been acquired inside or outside hospital. In the later case the organism may be sensitive to penicillin. If the therapeutic response is not satisfactory within 48 hours, the sensitivity tests should be carried out. Since the majority of staphylococcal infections acquired in hospital are resistant to the commonly used antibiotics, the organism should be submitted to sensitivity tests at the outset. If the patient is seriously ill treatment should be commenced with cloxacillin, unless the patient is known to be allergic to the penicillins when lincomycin or clindamycin should be given. All possible care must be taken to prevent the spread of staphylococcal infection and infective patients should be isolated and barrier-nursed. (Staphylococcal Infections (pneumonia)

Nutritional Factors in Disease

Nutritional Factors in Disease

nutritional factors in disease
nutritional factors in disease
THAT disease might be due to lack of some essential factor had little place in the thinking of 50 years ago. Consequently the concept of deficiency diseases, nutritional and endocrine, grew in the present century. As deficiency diseases came to be recognized and understood, the next step was the realization that lack of nutritional and endocrine factors affects primarily the chemistry of the body. Disease resulting from a ‘biochemical lesion’ and structural changes are late effects, secondary to change in function.
This revolution in medical thought had profound practical consequences. The great nutritional diseases that flourished within the lifetime of some doctors still in practice have now vanished wherever medical knowledge has been linked
with proper administration of food supplies. Florid rickets is now a clinical curiosity in Britain, yet in the streets of our big cities we still see elderly people, bandy-legged, stunted and pigeon-chested, who carry the scars of it. Pellagra, prior to 1940, affected tens of thousands of poor country people in the southern states of the USA; better knowledge of nutritional needs and, above all, improved economic circumstances have largely swept it away. The classic nutritional
diseases occur only in situations where there is a failure both of food supplies and medical care which regrettably is still the case in many parts of the world. Even in the USA, the richest country in the world, probably several million people are suffering from undernutrition or malnutrition. Those particularly liable to be affected are Negroes, Indians and ‘poor whites’ who, because of lack of education, physical or mental handicaps, alcoholism or drug addiction, are unable to obtain regular employment. It is these classes of people all over the world who tend to have large families and it is not surprising that nutritional disorders are especially liable to develop in the fourth and subsequent children.
Even in times of severe food shortage, proper application of medical knowledge can do much to overcome the worst effects of qualitative dietary deficiencies; medicine can deal with beriberi, scurvy and pellagra, but has no direct means of treating the effects of underfeeding-undernutrition. Consequently lack of sufficient food continues to be a most serious cause of ill-health in many underdeveloped regions.
The present world population is estimated to be more than 3,500 million and increasing by 70 million per year. In the absence of major catastrophes there will be more than twice as many inhabitants in the world by the year 2000 as there are today. This is not due to an increase in human fertility but is caused almost entirely by a remarkable reduction in the death rate. The greatest threat to the well-being of mankind is this explosive population growth rate. One-third of the world’s population receives less than 2,000 kcal/head/day. Agricultural production is hampered by bad climates, soil erosion, lack of fertilizers, antiquated farming methods, political upheavals and war. This situation will steadily deteriorate unless national programs of population control and family planning based on modern contraceptive techniques are evolved and effectively put into operation. In addition, food production must be greatly increased by the use of high-yielding strains of rice, wheat and maize.

 Aetiology of Nutritional Disorders

There are five essential causes of nutritional disorders:
I. Quantitative Dietary Deficiency. Not enough food results in undernutrition or when more severe, frank starvation.
2. Qualitative Dietary Deficiency. Wrong food results in malnutrition. The term ‘malnutrition’ should be restricted to those nutritional disorders, e.g. rickets and scurvy, which are due to lack of specific chemical components (nutrients) of a proper diet.
3. Quantitative Overnutrition. Too much food results in obesity.
4. Qualitative Overnutrition. This is due to too much of one food component, e.g. hypervitaminosis D.
5. Effects of Natural Toxins in Foods. Some foods contain small amounts of toxic substances which can lead to disease if a person or community has to rely too heavily on a single foodstuff, e.g. lathyrism.

Social and Economic Causes of Nutritional Disorders.

Even in countries where food, ample in quantity and quality, can be purchased, nutritional disorders arise because of poverty, prejudice, ignorance or bad housekeeping often caused by bad housing. The old, the solitary and children are most often affected.
Pathological Causes of Nutritional Disorders.
Even with an ample income, an adequate home and a knowledge of dietetics, a patient may develop a nutritional disorder through some other disease which ‘conditions’ (facilitates) it in one or more of the following ways.
DEFECTIVE INTAKE OF FOOD. (a) Loss of appetite may be an important symptom of organic disease, e.g. cancer of the stomach, and also of psychogenic disease, e.g. anorexia nervosa. (b) Persistent vomiting from any cause. (c) Food fads, e.g. in very strict vegetarians (vegans). (d) Alcohol provides calories but no essential nutrients. Chronic alcoholics suffer from malnutrition more often than undernutrition. (e) Unbalanced therapeutic diets, e.g. diets for digestive diseases may lack ascorbic acid unless care is taken to provide it. (f) Prolonged parenteral feeding with intravenous glucose after surgical operations may precipitate acute deficiencies of the vitamin B complex.
DEFECTIVE DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION. (a) Achlorhydria is a contributory factor in the causation of iron deficiency anaemia. (b) Steatorrhoea limits the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and calcium. (c) Intestinal hurry due to surgical short circuits, etc. may impair digestion. In starving people the ingestion of unsuitable foods often causes intestinal hurry and intensifies their plight. (d) Antibiotics, if their administration is prolonged, may interfere with the production of vitamins synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
DEFECTIVE UTILISATION. (a) Cirrhosis of the liver may interfere with the proper utilization of ingested nutrients, e.g. of protein and vitamin K. (b) Malignancy, in some unknown way, may produce a state of undernutrition despite an adequate diet. The same may be true of tuberculosis and other prolonged infections. (c) In renal failure vitamin D is not converted to the active metabolite. (d) Some drugs, e.g. anticonvulsants, are antagonists of folate and of vitamin D.        ‘
LOSS OF NUTRIENTS FROM THE BODY. (a) In the nephrotic syndrome there is loss of protein in the urine. (b) In diabetes mellitus uncontrolled glycosuria causes undernutrition. (c) In excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) secondary iron deficiency anaemia is common. (d) In severe or chronic diarrhea potassium is lost.
INCREASED NUTRITIONAL NEEDS. (a) In pregnancy, lactation and adolescence (especially after an Illness in the last named), and for those engaged in hard physical work, particularly in cold climates, the usual diet may be insufficient. (b) In fevers and hyperthyroidism the increased metabolism calls for more calories. (c) After burns, fractures and major surgery, there is an increased catabolism of protein and ascorbic acid which cannot be replaced until convalescence begins.
Although nutritional disorders are often precipitated and sometimes caused by such conditioning factors, the prime cause is usually a diet deficient in one or more nutrients. It is therefore poor practice to prescribe a single nutrient (e.g. a vitamin) without first looking for evidence of other deficiencies and thereafter taking measures to improve the diet. (Nutritional Factors in Disease)